On the Timing of Signals in Multisensory Integration and Crossmodal Interactions: A Scoping Review: Supplementary Material

A scoping review was undertaken to explore research investigating early interactions and integration of auditory and visual stimuli in the human brain. The focus was on methods used to study low-level multisensory temporal processing using simple stimuli in humans, and how this research has informed our understanding of multisensory perception. The study of multisensory temporal processing probes how the relative timing between signals affects perception. Several tasks, illusions, computational models, and neuroimaging techniques were identified in the literature search. Research into early audiovisual temporal processing in special populations was also reviewed. Recent research has continued to provide support for early integration of crossmodal information. These early interactions can influence higher-level factors, and vice versa. Temporal relationships between auditory and visual stimuli influence multisensory perception, and likely play a substantial role in solving the ‘correspondence problem’ (how the brain determines which sensory signals belong together, and which should be segregated).