Uncovering Neotropical treefrog diversity: Integrative taxonomy reveal paraphyly in Boana atlantica (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae): supplementary material

Boana atlantica was described based on morphological characters to acommodate populations from Bahia state, Brazil, previously referred to as B. punctata. However, its taxonomic validity is questionable due to inconsistencies in bioacoustic data. Here, we integrate molecular, cytogenetic and morphological data to re-evaluate the taxonomic status of B. atlantica. Molecular analyses provided strong support for the hypothesis that B. atlantica is a valid species, being, however, nominal populations from Bahia state paraphyletic with respect to individuals of B. atlantica collected in Alagoas and Pernambuco states. These populations shown high genetic divergence in the 16S rRNA mitochondrial fragment, and we consider populations from Alagoas and Pernambuco as a putative new candidate species of Boana punctata group. The external and internal morphology of the tadpoles of these lineages were similar, but Nucleolar Organizer Regions (NOR) was sited in different chromosomes. Our results indicate that B. atlantica is paraphyletic and may be a complex of species. Morphological of adult and/or bioacoustical data should be further assessed to find diagnostic characters to tease these lineages apart and name them properly.