Audiovisual Integration Varies with Target and Environment Richness in Immersive Virtual Reality: Supplementary Material
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We are continually bombarded by information arriving to each of our senses; however, the brain seems to effortlessly integrate this separate information into a unified percept. Although multisensory integration has been researched extensively using simple computer tasks and stimuli, much less is known about how multisensory integration functions in real-world contexts. Additionally, several recent studies have demonstrated that multisensory integration varies tremendously across naturalistic stimuli. Virtual reality can be used to study multisensory integration in realistic settings because it combines realism with precise control over the environment and stimulus presentation. In the current study, we investigated whether multisensory integration as measured by the redundant signals effects (RSE) is observable in naturalistic environments using virtual reality and whether it differs as a function of target and/or environment cue-richness. Participants detected auditory, visual, and audiovisual targets which varied in cue-richness within three distinct virtual worlds that also varied in cue-richness. We demonstrated integrative effects in each environment-by-target pairing and further showed a modest effect on multisensory integration as a function of target cue-richness but only in the cue-rich environment. Our study is the first to definitively show that minimal and more naturalistic tasks elicit comparable redundant signals effects. Our results also suggest that multisensory integration may function differently depending on the features of the environment. The results of this study have important implications in the design of virtual multisensory environments that are currently being used for training, educational, and entertainment purposes.