Evolution of vertebrate brain size is associated with sexual traits

The expensive tissue hypothesis predicts a trade-off between investments in the brain and other energetically costly organs due to the costs associated with their growth and maintenance within the finite energy resources available. However, few studies address the strength of relationships between brain size and investments in precopulatory (ornaments and armaments) and postcopulatory (testes and ejaculates) sexual traits. Here, in a broad comparative study, we tested the prediction that the relationship between brain size and investment in sexual traits differs among taxa relative to the importance of sperm competition within them. We found that brain size was negatively correlated with sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in anurans and primates, and it tended to decrease with SSD in ungulates and cetaceans. However, brain size did not covary significantly with armaments (e.g., canine length, horn, antler, and muscle mass). Brain size was not correlated with postcopulatory sexual traits (testes and ejaculates). The intensity of covariance between brain size and precopulatory sexual traits decreased with increasing relative testis size.