Psychometric Validation of the German Adaptation of the Temporal Metacognition Scale
Temporal metacognition (TMC) is defined as the ability to consciously self-regulate cognitive focus on the past, the present, and the future by utilizing metacognitive skills, emotions, knowledge, and experience. TMC stems conceptually from the idea of a balanced time perspective — the ability to switch between time horizons — and it builds upon the major theories of metacognition. We validated the German version of the Temporal Metacognition Scale (TMCS) translated from the Polish original with n = 226 native German speakers. Confirmatory Factor Analysis supported the three-factor model obtained in the original Polish version with the following subscales: Metacognitive Temporal Control, Cognitive Reconstruction of the Past, and Goal-Oriented Metatemporal Interconnectedness. All three scales yielded acceptable internal consistency. Their correlations with the subscales of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, Balanced Time Perspective Index, and other conceptually related psychological constructs, such as personality traits, well-being, experiencing emotions, and other features of metacognition, provide evidence for the validity of the German version of the TMCS.