Brill Online
JEMCA20231003_ESM.pdf (382.21 kB)

Supplementary material for the Journal of the European Mosquito Control Association: An update on the ecology, seasonality and distribution of Culex modestus in England

Download (382.21 kB)
journal contribution
posted on 2024-03-19, 08:57 authored by A.G.C. Vaux, A.J. Abbott, C.J. Johnston, F.M. Hawkes, R.J. Hopkins, B. Cull, G. Gibson, R.A. Cheke, A. Callaghan, J.M. Medlock

Culex (Barraudius) modestus is an important vector of West Nile virus (WNV) in Europe and it has the potential to play a bridge vector role in future WNV transmission in the UK. Here we provide an update on the known distribution of the species in England based on adult and larval data, characterise the preferred Cx. modestus larval habitats, and present adult and larval data from sites where the species is known to occur. Culex modestus is primarily found in the south-east of England, particularly in North Kent, the Thames Estuary, and along the Essex coast, and as far east as Orford Ness, Suffolk, and in Rainham Marshes, Essex, in the West. Adult numbers peak in mid-late July, with larval numbers highest in late August / early September. Preferred habitats in North Kent are warm, shallow, narrow ditches, with an abundance of marginal, submerged, and floating vegetation. Such environmental data on the distribution, seasonality and habitat preference of Cx. modestus are critical for informing WNV surveillance programmes, identifying at risk areas (associated with this species) and providing information for a targeted control strategy in the event of WNV transmission.


Usage metrics




    Ref. manager