Supplementary material to BM2022.0137: Trackability of proteins from probiotic Bifidobacterium spp. in the gut using metaproteomics
Beneficial effects of Bifidobacterium spp. on gut microbiota development and infant health have been reported earlier. Therefore, supplementation of infant formulas with probiotic bifidobacteria, as well as prebiotics stimulating bifidobacterial growth, has been proposed. Here, we studied the faecal microbiome of infants supplemented with specialized nutrition, of which some received a standard amino acid-based formula (AAF) and others an AAF with a specific mixture of prebiotics and a probiotic (synbiotics) using metaproteomics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Faecal samples were taken at baseline, as well as after 6 and 12 months fed with the specialized formula. The aim was to compare microbial differences between infants treated with the standard AAF and those who received the additional synbiotics. Our findings show that infants who received AAF with synbiotics have significantly higher levels of Bifidobacteriaceae DNA as well as significantly increased levels of Coriobacteriaceae proteins, over time. Moreover, at visit 12 months higher levels of some bifidobacterial carbohydrate-active enzymes, known to metabolize oligosaccharides, were observed in the synbiotic group compared to the non-synbiotic group. The results indicate that the synbiotics provided in our study are trackable in faecal samples on the DNA and protein level during the intervention period.