Supplementary material to Beneficial Microbes article: Assessment of the safety of Levilactobacillus brevis CNCM I-5321, a probiotic candidate strain isolated from pulque with anti-proliferative activities
Gut dysbiosis has been strongly correlated with colorectal cancer (CRC) development and the use of probiotics to modulate this imbalance represents a potential and promising therapy to prevent and treat CRC. For this reason, the identification of novel probiotic strains from diverse origins has widely increased in recent years, including traditional fermented foods. In this work we describe a new strain previously isolated from pulque (a traditional Mexican beverage), Levilactobacillus brevis CNCM I-5321, which may represent an interesting probiotic candidate to prevent and treat cancer. Indeed, our results show that CNCM I-5321 displays significant and specific antiproliferative capacities in human intestinal cancer cell lines (HT-29, HTC-116 and Caco-2 cells), but not in normal cells (FH cells). In addition, CNCM I-5321 is able to induce: (1) a pro-inflammatory immune response through stimulation of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-17 cytokines and (2) apoptosis via activation of caspase 8. On the other hand, a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay revealed phenotypic resistance of this strain to ampicillin and chloramphenicol. However, no known transferable determinants were found in the genome of CNCM I-5321, thus this probiotic candidate presents no risk of horizontal transfer to the intestinal bacterial population. Finally, the safety status of CNCM I-5321 was evaluated using an innovative model of chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) to assess undesirable and/or toxic effects. Overall, our results support that CNCM I-5321 strain is non-pathogenic and safe for potential use as an anti-cancer candidate in human and animal medicine.