Supplementary material to Beneficial Microbes article: Protective effects of Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 in an experimental model of NSAID-induced enteropathy
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) induce a broad spectrum of gastro-intestinal adverse effects, including ulceration and bleeding. The pathophysiology of NSAID enteropathy is complex and incompletely understood, but some evidence showed that NSAIDs impair the intestinal barrier and cause a gut dysbiosis. Identifying new treatments aiming to reverse or attenuate NSAID-induced adverse effects would have a significant impact on a high number of patients. The aim of this work is to assess the effects of the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (Sb) on a model of NSAID-induced enteropathy. Four groups of mice were tested: Control, Indomethacin, Sb, and Sb + Indomethacin. A clinical score was evaluated throughout the experiment. Faecal calprotectin, microbiota and haemoglobin analyses were performed. At the end of the treatments, the small intestine, colon, and caecum lengths, and intestinal permeability were measured. Sections of ileum and jejunum were observed to assess a histological score and ileal cytokines were measured by immunoassay. Indomethacin-treated animals showed an increase in their clinical scores, reflecting a worsening of their general state. Mice co-treated with Sb and indomethacin displayed an improvement of their clinical score in comparison with mice treated with indomethacin alone. Sb prevented the indomethacin-induced shortening of the small intestine and caecum, and significantly attenuated the severity of intestinal lesions. Sb also prevented the increase in faecal calprotectin, reduced faecal haemoglobin, and prevented the increase of intestinal permeability in mice treated with indomethacin. Sb also counteracted the increase of faecal bacteria associated with the pathogenesis of NSAID-enteropathy. In conclusion, our results show a protective effect of Sb in a model of indomethacin-induced enteropathy. Sb improved the intestinal barrier function and exerted a positive action on gut microbiota composition.