Brill Online
2 files

Supplementary materials for the Journal of the European Mosquito Control Association: A survey of Phlebotomine sand flies across their northern distribution range limit in Western Europe

Download all (1.5 MB)
journal contribution
posted on 2024-04-25, 13:15 authored by J. Risueño, S. Bersihand, C. Bender, T. Cornen, K. De Boer, A. Ibáñez-Justicia, D. Rey, Y. Rozier, A. Schneider, A. Stroo, A. Vanslembrouck, W. Van Bortel, A. Weigand, D. Zambianchi, P. Pérez Cutillas, S. Oerther, M. Braks, G.R.W. Wint1, E. Berriatua, F. Schaffner

Sand flies are vectors of Leishmania spp. protozoa, phleboviruses and Bartonella bacilliformis. In this study we surveyed areas of central-western Europe, encompassing the northern limit of the known sand fly distribution, and investigated the relationship between their presence and environmental variables. In this area, very limited occurrence data exists, none of them recent. Sampling was performed in July and August 2023 using CDC-light traps, ‘sticky’ traps and human landing captures, at 179 selected sites in 48 municipalities. A total of 55 sand fly specimens were collected at 11% (20/179) of the sites sampled – including 16 sites in France, 2 in Luxembourg and 1 in Germany – comprising the first published records for Luxembourg and the Trier-Saarburg County of Germany. No sand flies were detected in Belgium or in the Netherlands. Two species were captured: Phlebotomus mascittii (37 females, 2 males) and Ph. perniciosus (1 female, 15 males). The latter species was only found in Savoie, the southernmost region sampled in France, while the former species was detected as far north as latitude 50°N. Logistic regression modelling indicated that the probability of sand fly presence gradually decreased with increasing latitude and altitude (P < 0.05), and it was not associated to other analysed landscape features in the proximity of the traps. The study confirms and provides new evidence for the presence of sand flies in areas of Western Europe and highlights the need to be aware of potential autochthonous transmission of sand fly-borne pathogens in these areas.


Usage metrics




    Ref. manager