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Supplemetary materials for Israel Journal of Plant Science: Endogenous phytohormone analysis during sequential stages of somatic embryogenesis in Musa AAA cv. Grand Naine (subgroup Cavendish)

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journal contribution
posted on 2024-06-25, 12:31 authored by Marimuthu Kumaravel, Subbaraya Uma, Suthanthiram Backiyarani, Marimuthu Somasundaram Saraswathi, Muthu Mayivaghanan, Anuradha Agrawal

This is the first initiative study to provide quantified levels of four endogenous phytohormones during the induction, regeneration, maturation and germination stages of somatic embryogenesis (SE) in banana, using immature male bud explants, in the popular commercial triploid cultivar Grand Naine (AAA). Phytohormones are known to play a major role in the regulation of SE and most protocols have been developed for various cultivars of banana following empirical approaches. Although, several reports are available with regard to the impact of growth regulators exogenously supplemented to the media, the vital role of endogenous growth hormones in various developmental stages of SE remain unclear in banana. Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) was used to analyze endogenous status of indole acetic acid (IAA), zeatin, gibberellic acid (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Results from this study revealed that endogenous IAA and GA along with exogenous auxin play a major role in the induction of embryogenic competence of male bud explants. The levels of endogenous IAA and zeatin were found to be higher in embryogenic calli than non-embryogenic calli, although three different types of exogenous auxins were supplemented in callogenesis medium, but not cytokinin. Higher level of ABA and GA was observed in early and late developmental stages of somatic embryo, respectively. GA also played a predominant role in germination of somatic embryos. These findings will be applied for improvement of SE protocol in recalcitrant banana cultivars by suitably altering or supplementing exogenous growth hormones.