The complete mitochondrial genomes of Notiophilus quadripunctatus Dejean, 1826 and Omophron limbatum (Fabricius, 1777): New insights into the mitogenome phylogeny of the Carabidae (Insecta, Coleoptera)
The Carabidae is by far the largest family of the Adephaga, with more than 40,000 described species. Whereas their phylogeny has been extensively studied, convergences and reversals in morphological traits prevent a robust phylogenetic concept so far. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of Notiophilus quadripunctatus (Nebriinae) and Omophrom limbatum (Omophroninae) using high-throughput sequencing. Both mitogenomes consisted of a single circular DNA molecule that encoded the typical 13 protein-coding genes, two subunits of mitochondrial RNAs, 22 tRNAs and a putative control region. Our phylogenetic study revealed Omophrom limbatum as sister taxon to all other analyzed ground beetle species whereas Notiophilus quadripunctatus was identified as sister to Nebria brevicollis as part of the Nebriinae. The analyses also support the monophyly of the Cicindelidae but place Trachypachus holmbergi (Trachypachidae) within the Carabidae. Nevertheless, almost all carabid subfamilies with more than one analyzed species were identified as monophyla.