The diurnal advertisement and response call of Pulchrana glandulosa (Anura: Ranidae) (Boulenger, 1882), from Langkawi Island, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia
Most of Malaysian's anuran species are nocturnally active, including Pulchrana glandulosa. However, all the studies on the description of this species' call were done during nocturnal surveys in Sarawak, Borneo. Here we report the diurnal call of this frog from Langkawi Island, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia. This male frog exhibits two types of calls: repetitive one-note advertisement calls and multiple-note response calls. Anuran bioacoustics can use to monitor the well-being of the environment they occupy. This information is very informative for the conservation management authority and decision-making for conservation purposes. The diurnal call of this frog is a rare discovery and was not yet described in previous records. This research shows us that this frog calls diurnally and nocturnally because its skin secretion has a high toxicity level. Besides that, this frog is well known for its loud “WAHK” call at night. However, the diurnal call is not as rare as one thinks; we need to know the specific spot at a specific time of occurrence. Furthermore, these surveys also need to be done diurnally to minimise the undetected species behaviour as in this study, which is essential for our scientific community.