Phylogenetic biogeography of Leptohyphes (Ephemeroptera: Leptohyphidae)
Leptohyphes Eaton is one of the most species-rich American genera in Ephemeroptera, with 45 valid species distributed from south-central USA to Patagonia. Most species are distributed in central and northern Andes. Nymphs are frequent and abundant in mountain streams. We present a parsimony-based morphological phylogeny for the genus. Specific geographic records were studied using Hovenkamp's protocol (barrier biogeography). Leptohyphes was recovered as a monophyletic group. The most ancient disjunction found in Leptohyphes separated Tepui-area from the rest of the Americas. Other interesting vicariant events were found, including the separation of eastern Atlantic mountains (Mata Atlantica) from the Andes; oriental and occidental slopes of the Andes; northern from central Andes; and northern Andes from Central and North America. An ancient tropical South American origin for the genus is supported, with a more recent diversification due to Andean orogeny. Clades and terminals reaching North America include few independent events of more recent range expansions.